Validating Sociotechnical Systems’ Requirements through Immersion

Andreas Gregoriades, Maria Pampaka


One of the most critical phases in complex socio-technical system development is the validation of non-functional requirements (NFR). During this phase, system designers need to verify that the proposed system’s NFRs will be satisfied. A special type of NFRs which is often ignored regards the Human Factors (HF) NFRs. These requirements are of vital importance to socio-technical systems since they affect the safety and reliability of human agents within such systems. This paper presents a scenario-based approach for validating HF NFRs using VR CAVE simulation. A case study is used to demonstrate the application of the method in the validation of the situation awareness NFR of an in-vehicle Smart driver assistive technology (SDAT). Such systems aim to alleviate accident risks by improving the driver’s situation awareness by drawing their attention on critical information cues that improve decision making. The assessment of the HF NFR is achieved through an experiment with users in a virtual environment. This work describes and demonstrates a method that utilizes a custom-made, modular 3D simulator that uses a number of hazardous scenarios, for the validation of the HF NFRs of prospective systems.


  1. Adams K., et al, 2015, Non-functional Requirements in Systems Analysis and Topics in Safety, Risk, reliability and Quality, Springer.
  2. Chung, L., Nixon, B. A., Yu, E. and J. Mylopoulos, 2000. Non-functional requirement in Software Engineering, Kluwer Academic Publishing.
  3. Davenne D., Lericollais R., Sagaspe P., Taillard J., Gauthier A., Espié S., Philip P. 2012. Reliability of simulator driving tool for evaluation of sleepiness, fatigue and driving performance, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 45, pp.677-682.
  4. Dingus, T. A., Klauer, S. G., Neale, V. L., Petersen, A., Lee, S. E., Sudweeks, J., et al. 2006. The 100-car naturalistic driving study: Phase II - Results of the 100-car field experiment. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
  5. Endlsey M. R 2012. Designing for Situation Awareness: An Approach to User-Centered Design, Second Edition, CRS press.
  6. Fuller R. and Santos J. 2002. Human Factors for Highway Engineers. New York: Pergamon.
  7. Gregoriades. A and Sutcliffe. A. 2007. Workload prediction for improved design and reliability of complex systems. Reliability. Eng. System Safety, 39, n.4, pp.530-549.
  8. Gregoriades A, Sutcliffe A, Papageorgiou G, Louvieris P. 2010 Human-Centred Safety Analysis of Prospective Road Designs, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part A, Vol 40, 2, pp 236-250.
  9. Gregoriades A., Sutcliffe A. S., 2005. Scenario-based assessment of non-functional requirements, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, , Vol 31, 5, pp 392-409.
  10. Hevner, A. & Chatterjee, S 2010. Design Research in Information Systems, Integrated Series in Information Systems, vol 22, Springer.
  11. Holohan, C., Culler, R., & Wilcox, B. 1978. Effects of visual distraction on reaction time in a simulated traffic environment, Human Factors, 20, pp.409-413.
  12. Illa, X. B., Franch, X, & Pastor, J.A. 2000. Formalising ERP selection criteria. In Proceedings of the 10th international workshop on software specification and design (IWSSD'00), California, pp. 115-123.
  13. Konstantopoulos P., Chapman P., Crundall D. 2010. Driver's visual attention as a function of driving experience and visibility. Using a driving simulator to explore drivers' eye movements in day, night and rain driving, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42, pp.827- 834.
  14. Marew, T. et al. 2009. Tactics based approach for integrating non-functional requirements in objectoriented analysis and design Syst. Software, 82, pp. 1642-1656.
  15. Matoussi, A., and Laleau, R. 2008. A Survey of NonFunctional Requirements in Software Development Process, Report No. TR-LACL-2008-7, Departement d'Informatique Universite Paris 12, 2008.
  16. Montella A., Ariab M., D'Ambrosiob A., Galantea F., Maurielloa F., Pernettic M. 2011. Simulator evaluation of drivers' speed, deceleration and lateral position at rural intersections in relation to different perceptual cues, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43, pp.2072- 2084.
  17. Nwokeji J., et al, 2014. ER 2014- International Workshp on Conceptual Modeling in Requirements and Business Analysis (MREBA), USA.
  18. Peng, Y. G. Wang, H. Wang, 2012. User preferences based software defect detection algorithms selection using MCDM, Information Sciences 191. 3-13.
  19. Reason, J., A. Manstead, S. Stradling, J. Baxter, K. Campbell. 2005. Errors and violations on the roads: a real distinction, Ergonomics, 33 (10-11) (1990), pp. 1315-1332.
  20. Stone, R. J. 2001. Virtual Reality for Interactive Training: An Industrial Practitioners Viewpoint, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 55, pp. 699- 711.
  21. Sadana V., Liu X., 2007. Analysis of conflicts among nonfunctional requirements using integrated analysis of functional and non-functional requirements, Computer Software and Applications Conference, COMPSAC.
  22. Zayaraz G, Thambidurai P., Srinivasan M., Rodrigues P.. 2005. Software quality assurance through COSMIC FFP ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, 30 (5).
  23. Marew, T. et al.2009. Tactics based approach for integrating on-functional requirements in objectoriented analysis and design Syst. Software, 82, pp. 1642-1656.
  24. Zhu M., Luo X., Chen X., Dash W.,2012. A non-functional requirements tradeoff model in Trustworthy Software, Information Sciences, Volume 191, 15, pp 61-75.
  25. Sutcliffe, A. and Gault, B. 2004, The ISRE method for analyzing system requirements with virtual prototypes. Syst. Engin., 7: 123-143.
  26. Theeuwes J. et al, 2012, Designing Safe Road Systems: A Human Factors Perspective, Ashgate.

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Gregoriades A. and Pampaka M. (2016). Validating Sociotechnical Systems’ Requirements through Immersion . In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems - Volume 1: ICEIS, ISBN 978-989-758-187-8, pages 456-463. DOI: 10.5220/0005822204560463

in Bibtex Style

author={Andreas Gregoriades and Maria Pampaka},
title={Validating Sociotechnical Systems’ Requirements through Immersion},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems - Volume 1: ICEIS,},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems - Volume 1: ICEIS,
TI - Validating Sociotechnical Systems’ Requirements through Immersion
SN - 978-989-758-187-8
AU - Gregoriades A.
AU - Pampaka M.
PY - 2016
SP - 456
EP - 463
DO - 10.5220/0005822204560463