# BIO-INFORMATICS IN THE LIGHT OF THE MAXIMUM ORDINALITY PRINCIPLE - The Case of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

### Corrado Giannantoni

#### Abstract

In a previous paper (presented at the Third International Conference on Bioinformatics) we have shown that Protein Folding, although considered as being an “intractable” problem that would require thousands of years to be solved, in reality can be solved in less than 10 minutes when modeled in terms of Incipient Differential Calculus (IDC). Such an evaluation was specifically made with reference to Dystrophin, precisely because, being made up of about 100,000 atoms, it represents the largest protein in a human being. Consequently it can be considered as being the most significant ostensive example in the context of such Informatics problems. The present paper aims to show that the folding of Dystrophin can also be run on a simple PC in less than two hours, as a consequence of very profound “symmetry” properties of the Ordinal Matrices that characterize the mathematical model adopted. The same happens in the case of dynamic interactions, such as Molecular Docking and computer-aided Drug Design, which can be obtained in absolutely comparable computation time. This is also why, by keeping the original reference to Dystrophin, we assumed Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy as the pertinent corresponding example. The paper will also point out that such advantages are strictly referable to a different gnoseological (and mathematical) approach based on the Maximum Ordinality Principle, which can be considered as being the most advanced Ordinal Self-organization Principle for living (and also non-living) Systems.

#### References

- Aartsma-Rus A. et al., 2006. Exploring the Frontiers of Therapeutic Exon Skipping for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy by Double Targeting within One or Multiple Exons. Molecular Therapy, Vol. 14, 401-407.
- Giannantoni C., 2001. The Problem of the Initial Conditions and Their Physical Meaning in Linear Differential Equations of Fractional Order. Applied Mathematics and Computation 141 (2003) 87-102.
- Giannantoni C., 2002. The Maximum Em-Power Principle as the basis for Thermodynamics of Quality. Ed. S.G.E., Padua, ISBN 88-86281-76-5.
- Giannantoni C., 2004. Mathematics for Generative Processes: Living and Non-Living Systems. 11th International Congress on Computational and Applied Mathematics, Leuven, July 26-30, 2004. Applied Mathematics and Computation 189 (2006) 324-340.
- Giannantoni C., 2006. Emergy Analysis as the First Ordinal Theory of Complex Systems. Proceedings of the Fourth Emergy Conference 2006. Gainesville, Florida, USA, January 17-22, pp. 15.1-15.14.
- Giannantoni C., 2008. From Transformity to Ordinality, or better: from Generative Transformity to Ordinal Generativity. Proceedings of the Fifth Emergy Conference. Gainesville, Florida, USA, January 31- February 2, 2008.
- Giannantoni C., 2009. Ordinal Benefits vs Economic Benefits as a Reference Guide for Policy Decision Making. The Case of Hydrogen Technologies. Energy n. 34 (2009), pp. 2230-2239.
- Giannantoni C., 2010a. The Maximum Ordinality Principle. A Harmonious Dissonance. Proceedings of the Sixth Emergy Conference. Gainesville, Florida, USA, January 14-16, 2010.
- Giannantoni C., 2010b. Protein Folding, Molecular Docking, Drug Design. The Role of the Derivative “Drift” in Complex Systems Dynamics. Proceedings of Third International Conference on Bioinformatics, Valencia, Spain, January 20-24, 2010.
- Odum H. T., 1994a. Ecological and General Systems. An Introduction to Systems Ecology. Revised Edition. University Press Colorado.
- Odum H. T., 1994b. Environmental Accounting. Environ. Engineering Sciences. University of Florida.
- Odum H. T., 1994c. Self Organization and Maximum Power. Environ. Engineering Sciences. University of Florida.
- Poincaré H., 1952. Science and Hypothesis. New York: Dover.
- Van Regenmortel M.H.V., 2001. Pitfalls of Reductionism in the Design of Peptide-based Vaccines. Vaccine 19 (2001) 2369-2374.
- Wilton S. D. 2007. Antisense Oligonucleotide-induced Exon Skipping Across the Human Dystrophin Gene Transcript. Molecular Therapy, Vol. 15, 1288-96.

#### Paper Citation

#### in Harvard Style

Giannantoni C. (2011). **BIO-INFORMATICS IN THE LIGHT OF THE MAXIMUM ORDINALITY PRINCIPLE - The Case of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy** . In *Proceedings of the International Conference on Bioinformatics Models, Methods and Algorithms - Volume 1: BIOINFORMATICS, (BIOSTEC 2011)* ISBN 978-989-8425-36-2, pages 244-250. DOI: 10.5220/0003273002440250

#### in Bibtex Style

@conference{bioinformatics11,

author={Corrado Giannantoni},

title={BIO-INFORMATICS IN THE LIGHT OF THE MAXIMUM ORDINALITY PRINCIPLE - The Case of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy},

booktitle={Proceedings of the International Conference on Bioinformatics Models, Methods and Algorithms - Volume 1: BIOINFORMATICS, (BIOSTEC 2011)},

year={2011},

pages={244-250},

publisher={SciTePress},

organization={INSTICC},

doi={10.5220/0003273002440250},

isbn={978-989-8425-36-2},

}

#### in EndNote Style

TY - CONF

JO - Proceedings of the International Conference on Bioinformatics Models, Methods and Algorithms - Volume 1: BIOINFORMATICS, (BIOSTEC 2011)

TI - BIO-INFORMATICS IN THE LIGHT OF THE MAXIMUM ORDINALITY PRINCIPLE - The Case of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

SN - 978-989-8425-36-2

AU - Giannantoni C.

PY - 2011

SP - 244

EP - 250

DO - 10.5220/0003273002440250