Iris Recognition under Biologically Troublesome Conditions - Effects of Aging, Diseases and Post-mortem Changes

Mateusz Trokielewicz, Adam Czajka, Piotr Maciejewicz

Abstract

This paper presents the most comprehensive analysis of iris recognition reliability in the occurrence of various biological processes happening naturally and pathologically in the human body, including aging, illnesses, and post-mortem changes to date. Insightful conclusions are offered in relation to all three of these aspects. Extensive regression analysis of the template aging phenomenon shows that differences in pupil dilation, combined with certain quality factors of the sample image and the progression of time itself can significantly degrade recognition accuracy. Impactful effects can also be observed when iris recognition is employed with eyes affected by certain eye pathologies or (even more) with eyes of the deceased subjects. Notably, appropriate databases are delivered to the biometric community to stimulate further research in these utterly important areas of iris biometrics studies. Finally, some open questions are stated to inspire further discussions and research on these important topics. To Authors’ best knowledge, this is the only scientific study of iris recognition reliability of such a broad scope and novelty.

References

  1. A. Sansola (Master's Thesis, Boston University, 2015). Postmortem iris recognition and its application in human identification.
  2. Aslam, T. M., Tan, S. Z., and Dhillon, B. (2009). Iris recognition in the presence of ocular disease. J. R. Soc. Interface 2009, 6.
  3. Baker, S., Bowyer, K. W., and Flynn, P. J. (2009). Empirical evidence for correct iris match score degradation with increased time-lapse between gallery and probe matches. International Conference on Biometrics, pages 1170-1179.
  4. Baker, S., Bowyer, K. W., Flynn, P. J., and Phillips, P. J. (2013). Template Aging in Iris Biometrics: Evidence of Increased False Reject Rate in ICE 2006. Handbook of Iris Recognition, pages 205-218.
  5. BBC News (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/ science/nature/1477655.stm, 9 August, 2001 (accessed: April 10, 2016)). The eyes have it.
  6. Bergmuller, T., Debiasi, L., Sun, Z., and Uhl, A. (2014). Impact of sensor ageing on iris recognition. Proceedings of the IAPR/IEEE International Joint Conference on Biometrics (IJCB'14).
  7. Bolme, D. S., Tokola, R. A., and Boehnen, C. B. (2016). Impact of environmental factors on biometric matching during human decomposition. IEEE 8th International Conference on Biometrics Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS).
  8. Bowyer, K. W., Baker, S. E., Hentz, A., Hollingsworth, K., Peters, T., and Flynn, P. J. (2009). Factors that degrade the match distribution in iris biometrics. Identity on the Information Society, 2:327-343.
  9. Bowyer, K. W. and Ortiz, E. (2015). Critical examination of the IREX VI results. IET Biometrics, 4:192-199(7).
  10. Bowyer, K. W. and Ortiz, E. (December 23, 2013). Making Sense of the IREX VI Report. Computer Vision Research Lab Technical Report.
  11. Czajka, A. (2013). Template Ageing in Iris Recognition. 6thInternational Conference on Bio-inspired Systems and Signal Processing, February 11-14, 2013, Barcelona, Spain.
  12. Daugman, J. (1994). Biometric personal identification system based on iris analysis, United States Patent, US 5291560.
  13. Dhir, L., Habib, N. E., Monro, D. M., and Rakshit, S. (2010). Effect of cataract surgery and pupil dilation on iris pattern recognition for personal authentication. Eye, 24:1006-1010.
  14. Fairhurst, M. and Erbilek, M. (2011). Analysis of physical ageing effects in iris biometrics. IET Computer Vision.
  15. Fenker, S. P. and Bowyer, K. W. (2011). Experimental Evidence of a Template Aging Effect in Iris Biometrics. IEEE Computer Society Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision, pages 232-239.
  16. Fenker, S. P. and Bowyer, K. W. (2012). Analysis of Template Aging in Iris Biometrics. Proceedings of CVPR Workshops 2012, pages 45-51.
  17. Flom, L. and Safir, A. (1987). Iris recognition system, United States Patent, US 4641349.
  18. Grother, P., Matey, J. R., and Quinn, G. W. (2015). Irex vi: mixed-effects longitudinal models for iris ageing: response to bowyer and ortiz. IET Biometrics, 4:200- 205(5).
  19. Grother, P., Matey, J. R., Tabassi, E., Quinn, G. W., and Chumakov, M. (July 24, 2013). IREX VI: Temporal Stability of Iris Recognition Accuracy. NIST Interagency Report 7948.
  20. Hofbauer, H., Tomeo-Reyes, I., and Uhl, A. (2016). Isolating Iris Template Ageing in a Semi-controlled Environment. IEEE Xplore.
  21. IrisGuard (http://www.irisguard.com/ eyebank/downloads/EyeBankPer%20Page.pdf (accessed: January 16, 2016)). EyeBank Solution.
  22. IriTech (http://www.iritech.com/blog/iris-biometric-accesscontrol, August 20, 2015 (accessed: January 16, 2016)). Biometric Access Control Can Iris Biometric Enhance Better Security?
  23. McConnon, G., Deravi, F., Hoque, S., Sirlantzis, K., and Howells, G. (2012). Impact of Common Ophthalmic Disorders on Iris Recognition. 2012 5th IAPR International Conference on Biometrics Compendium, IEEE, pages 277-282.
  24. Ramachandra, R., Raja, K., Vemuri, V., Kumari, S., Gacon, P., Krichen, E., and Busch, C. (9th IAPR International Conference on Biometrics (ICB 2016), June 13-16, 2016, Halmstad, Sweden, 2016). Influence of Cataract Surgery on Iris Recognition: A Preliminary Study.
  25. Roizenblatt, R., Schor, P., Dante, F., Roizenblatt, J., and Belfort Jr., R. (2004). Iris recognition as a biometric method after cataract surgery. BioMedical Engineering Online, 3(2).
  26. Saripalle, S. K., McLaughlin, A., Krishna, R., Ross, A., and Derakhshani, R. (2015). Post-mortem Iris Biometric Analysis in Sus scrofa domesticus. IEEE 7th International Conference on Biometrics Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS).
  27. Sazonova, N., Hua, F., Liu, X., Remus, J., Ross, A., Hornak, L., and Schuckers, S. (2012). A study on qualityadjusted impact of time-lapse on iris recognition. Proceedings of the SPIE, 8371.
  28. Science Focus (http://www.sciencefocus.com/qa/wouldiris-scan-work-if-you-were-unconscious-or-youreyeball-was-detached, July 22, 2009 (accessed: April 10, 2016)). Would an iris scan work if you were unconscious or your eyeball was detached?
  29. Seyeddain, O., Kraker, H., Redlberger, A., Dexl, A. K., Grabner, G., and Emesz, M. (2014). Reliability of automatic biometric iris recognition after phacoemulsification or drug-induced pupil dilation. Eur J Ophthalmol, 24(1):58-62.
  30. Szczepanski, A., Misztal, K., and Saeed, K. (2014). Pupil and iris detection algorithm for near-infrared capture devices. In Saeed, K. and Snel, V., editors, Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management, volume 8838 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 141-150. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
  31. Tome-Gonzalez, P., Alonso-Fernandez, F., and OrtegaGarcia, J. (2008). On the Effects of Time Variability in Iris Recognition. IEEE Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and systems, pages 1-6.
  32. Trokielewicz, M. (2015). Linear regression analysis of template aging in iris recognition. IEEE 3rd International Workshop On Biometrics and Forensics (IWBF 2015), 3-4 March 2015, Gjovik, Norway, doi: 10.1109/IWBF.2015.7110233.
  33. Trokielewicz, M., Czajka, A., and Maciejewicz, P. (2014). Cataract influence on iris recognition performance. Proc. SPIE 9290, Photonics Applications in Astronomy, Communications, Industry, and High-Energy Physics Experiments 2014, 9290.
  34. Trokielewicz, M., Czajka, A., and Maciejewicz, P. (2015a). Assessment of iris recognition reliability for eyes affected by ocular pathologies. 7th IEEE International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS 2015), September 8-11, 2015, Arlington, USA.
  35. Trokielewicz, M., Czajka, A., and Maciejewicz, P. (2015b). Database if iris images acquired in the presence of ocular pathologies and assessment of iris recognition reliability for disease-affected eyes. 2nd IEEE International Conference on Cybernetics (CYBCONF 2015), Special Session on Reliable Biometrics (BIORELIABILITY 2015), June 24-26, 2015, Gdynia, Poland.
  36. Trokielewicz, M., Czajka, A., and Maciejewicz, P. (2016b). Implications of Ocular Pathologies for Iris Recognition Reliability. Image and Vision Computing.
  37. Trokielewicz, M., Czajka, A., and Maciejewicz, P. (8th IEEE International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS 2016), September 6-9, 2016, Buffalo, NY, USA, 2016a). Human Iris Recognition in Post-mortem Subjects: Study and Database.
  38. Trokielewicz, M., Czajka, A., and Maciejewicz, P. (9th IAPR International Conference on Biometrics (ICB 2016), June 13-16, 2016, Halmstad, Sweden, 2016c). Post-mortem Human Iris Recognition.
  39. Warsaw University of Technology (2015a). Warsaw-BioBase-Disease-Iris-v1.0: http://zbum.ia.pw.edu.pl/en/node/46.
  40. Warsaw University of Technology (2015b). Warsaw-BioBase-Disease-Iris-v2.1: http://zbum.ia.pw.edu.pl/en/node/46.
  41. Warsaw University of Technology (2016). Warsaw-BioBase-PostMortem-Iris-v1.0: http://zbum.ia.pw.edu.pl/en/node/46.
  42. Wild, P., Ferryman, J., and Uhl, A. (2015). Impact of (segmentation) quality on long vs. short-timespan assessments in iris recognition performance. IET Biometrics.
  43. Yuan, X., Zhou, H., and Shi, P. (2007). Iris recognition: a biometric method after refractive surgery. J Zhejiand Univ Sci A, 8(8):1227-1231.
Download


Paper Citation


in Harvard Style

Trokielewicz M., Czajka A. and Maciejewicz P. (2017). Iris Recognition under Biologically Troublesome Conditions - Effects of Aging, Diseases and Post-mortem Changes . In Proceedings of the 10th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies - Volume 4: BIOSIGNALS, (BIOSTEC 2017) ISBN 978-989-758-212-7, pages 253-258. DOI: 10.5220/0006251702530258


in Bibtex Style

@conference{biosignals17,
author={Mateusz Trokielewicz and Adam Czajka and Piotr Maciejewicz},
title={Iris Recognition under Biologically Troublesome Conditions - Effects of Aging, Diseases and Post-mortem Changes},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 10th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies - Volume 4: BIOSIGNALS, (BIOSTEC 2017)},
year={2017},
pages={253-258},
publisher={SciTePress},
organization={INSTICC},
doi={10.5220/0006251702530258},
isbn={978-989-758-212-7},
}


in EndNote Style

TY - CONF
JO - Proceedings of the 10th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies - Volume 4: BIOSIGNALS, (BIOSTEC 2017)
TI - Iris Recognition under Biologically Troublesome Conditions - Effects of Aging, Diseases and Post-mortem Changes
SN - 978-989-758-212-7
AU - Trokielewicz M.
AU - Czajka A.
AU - Maciejewicz P.
PY - 2017
SP - 253
EP - 258
DO - 10.5220/0006251702530258