Optimizing Spare Battery Allocation in an Electric Vehicle Battery Swapping System

Michael Dreyfuss, Yahel Giat

Abstract

Electric vehicle battery swapping stations are suggested as an alternative to vehicle owners recharging their batteries themselves. To maximize the network's performance spare batteries must be optimally allocated in these stations. In this paper, we consider the battery allocation problem where the criterion for optimality is the window fill rate, i.e., the probability that a customer that enters the swapping station will exit it within a certain time window. This time is set as the customer's tolerable wait in the swapping station. In our derivation of the window fill rate formulae, we differ from previous research in that we assume that the swapping time itself is not negligible. We numerically analyse the battery allocation problem for a hypothetical countrywide application in Israel and demonstrate the importance of estimating correctly customers' tolerable wait, the value of reducing battery swapping time and the unique features of the optimal battery allocation.

References

  1. Arcus, C. (2016). Plug-in electric vehicle market penetration and incentives: a global review. CleanTechnica. [online] Available at: https://cleantechnica.com/2016/05/31/batterylifetime-long-can-electric-vehicle-batteries-last/ [Accessed 22 Sep. 2016].
  2. Avci, B., Girotra, K., and Netessine, S. (2014). Electric vehicles with a battery switching station: Adoption and environmental impact. Management Science, 61(4):772-794.
  3. Basten, R. and van Houtum, G. (2014). System-oriented inventory models for spare parts. Surveys in Operations Research and Management Science, 19(1):34-55.
  4. Berg, M. and Posner, M. (1990). Customer delay in M/G/8 repair systems with spares. Operations Research, 38(2):344-348.
  5. Bullis, K. (2013). Forget battery swapping: Tesla aims to charge electric cars in vfie minutes. MIT Technology Review. [online] Available at: http://www.technologyreview.com/news/516876/forgetbattery-swapping-tesla-aims-to-charge-electric-carsin-vfie-minutes/ [Accessed 22 Sep. 2016].
  6. Caggiano, K., Jackson, L., Muckstadt, A., and Rappold, A. (2007). Optimizing service parts inventory in a multiechelon, multi-item supply chain with time-based customer service-level agreements. Operations Research, 55(2):303-318.
  7. Caggiano, K., Jackson, L., Muckstadt, A., and Rappold, A. (2009). Efficient computation of time-based customer service levels in a multi-item, multi-echelon supply chain: A practical approach for inventory optimization. European Journal of Operational Research, 199(3):744-749.
  8. Coffman, M., Bernstein, P., and Wee, S. (2016). Electric vehicles revisited: a review of factors that affect adoption. Transport Review, forthcoming.
  9. Demoulin, N. and Djelassi, S. (2013). Customer responses to waits for online banking service delivery. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 41(6):442-460.
  10. Dijk, M., Orsato, R., and Kemp, R. (2013). The emergence of an electric mobility trajectory. Energy Policy, 52:135-145.
  11. Dreyfuss, M. and Giat, Y. (2016). Optimal spares allocation in an exchangeable-item repair system with tolerable wait. Working Paper, Jerusalem College of Technology.
  12. Durrande-Moreau, A. (1999). Waiting for service: ten years of empirical research. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 10(2):171-189.
  13. Katz, K., Larson, B., and Larson, R. (1991). Prescriptions for the waiting in line blues: entertain, enlighten and engage. Sloan Management Review, (Winter):44-53.
  14. Maister, D. (1985). The psychology of waiting lines. In Czepiel, J., Solomon, M., and Heath, C. S. D., editors, The Service Encounter, pages 113-123. Lexington Books, Lanham, 2nd edition.
  15. Mak, H., Rong, Y., and Shen, Z. (2013). Infrastructure planning for electric vehicles with battery swapping. Management Science, 59(7):1557-1575.
  16. Ross, S. (1981). Introduction to probability models. Academic Press, NY, 2nd edition.
  17. Sarker, M., Hrvoje, P., and Ortega-Vazquez, M. (2015). Optimal operation and services scheduling for an electric vehicle battery swapping station. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 30(2):901-910.
  18. Shtub, A. and Simon, M. (1994). Determination of reorder points for spare parts in a two-echelon inventory system: The case of non-identical maintenance facilities. European journal of operational research, 73(3):458- 464.
  19. Smidts, A. and Pruyn, A. (1999). How waiting affects customer satisfaction with service: the role of subjective variables. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Research Seminar in Service Management, pages 678- 696. Universite d'Aix-Marseille.
  20. Yang, J. and Sun, H. (2015). Battery swap station locationrouting problem with capacitated electric vehicles. Computers & Operations Research, 55:217-232.
  21. Zhou, Y., Wang, M., Hao, H., Johnson, L., and Wang, H. (2015). Plug-in electric vehicle market penetration and incentives: a global review. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 20(5):777-795.
Download


Paper Citation


in Harvard Style

Dreyfuss M. and Giat Y. (2017). Optimizing Spare Battery Allocation in an Electric Vehicle Battery Swapping System . In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Operations Research and Enterprise Systems - Volume 1: ICORES, ISBN 978-989-758-218-9, pages 38-46. DOI: 10.5220/0006115000380046


in Bibtex Style

@conference{icores17,
author={Michael Dreyfuss and Yahel Giat},
title={Optimizing Spare Battery Allocation in an Electric Vehicle Battery Swapping System},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Operations Research and Enterprise Systems - Volume 1: ICORES,},
year={2017},
pages={38-46},
publisher={SciTePress},
organization={INSTICC},
doi={10.5220/0006115000380046},
isbn={978-989-758-218-9},
}


in EndNote Style

TY - CONF
JO - Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Operations Research and Enterprise Systems - Volume 1: ICORES,
TI - Optimizing Spare Battery Allocation in an Electric Vehicle Battery Swapping System
SN - 978-989-758-218-9
AU - Dreyfuss M.
AU - Giat Y.
PY - 2017
SP - 38
EP - 46
DO - 10.5220/0006115000380046