Using Sum-Frequency Generation (SFG) to Probe Electric-Fields within Organic Field-Effect Transistors

Douglas J. C. Gomes, Silvia G. Motti, Paulo B. Miranda

Abstract

Organic Field-Effect Transistors (OFETs) have attracted much research interest due to their potential for unique applications, such as flexible electronics. The operation of OFETs depends on the charge accumulation at the interface between an organic semiconductor and a dielectric material, induced by the voltage applied at the gate electrode. Direct measurements of the electric-field distribution in an operating device are useful for proposing and validating theoretical models for OFET operation. Here we propose using the second-order nonlinear optical process of Sum-Frequency Generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG spectroscopy) to probe the presence of an electric-field in the dielectric layer of OFETs, in a noninvasive, non-destructive and remote fashion. The OFETs were fabricated with a dielectric layer consisting of poly(methyl-methacrylate) – PMMA, and an active layer based on poly(3-hexyl thiophene) – P3HT, and SFG spectra were acquired from the channel region of operating OFETs. It was observed the appearance of vibrational bands due to carbonyl groups (~ 1720 cm-1) of the PMMA layer, whose ?(2) were induced by the electric-field within the dielectric, similarly to a reversible poling of polymers. This phenomenon opens up the possibility of mapping the spatial charge distribution in the conducting channel using SFG microscopy in operating devices.

References

  1. Babajanyan, A., Melikyan, H., Kim, J., Lee, K., Iwamoto, M., Friedman, B., 2011. Direct imaging of conductivity in pentacene field-effect transistors by a near-field scanning microwave microprobe. Org. Electron. 12, 263-268.
  2. Bauer, S., 1996. Poled polymers for sensors and photonic applications. J. Appl. Phys. 80, 5531-5558.
  3. Furukawa, Y., Seto, K., Nakajima, K., Itoh, Y., Eguchi, J., Sugiyama, T., Fujimura, H., 2012. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy of organic thin films used for electronic devices. Vibr. Spectrosc. 60, 5-9.
  4. Hallam, T., Lee, M., Zhao, N., Nandhakumar, I., Kemerink, M., Heeney, M., McCulloch, I., Sirringhaus,H., 2009. Local charge trapping in conjugated polymers resolved by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 256803.
  5. Hayes, P. L., Malin, J. N., Jordan, D. S., Geiger F. M., 2010. Get charged up: Nonlinear optical voltammetry for quantifying the thermodynamics and electrostatics of metal cations at aqueous/oxide interfaces. Chem. Phys. Lett. 499, 183-192.
  6. Manaka, T., Nakao, M., Yamada, D., Lim E., Iwamoto M., 2007 a. Optical second harmonic generation imaging for visualizing in-plane electric field distribution. Optics Express 15, 15964-15971.
  7. Manaka, T., Lim E., Tamura, R., Iwamoto M., 2007 b. Direct imaging of carrier motion in organic transistors by optical second harmonic generation. Nat. Photonics 1, 581-584.
  8. Nakai, I. F. et al., 2009. Molecular structure and carrier distributions at semiconductor/dielectric interfaces in organic field-effect transistors studied with sumfrequency generation microscopy. Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 243304.
  9. Sciascia, C. et al., 2011. Sub-micrometer charge modulation microscopy of a high mobility polymeric n-channel field-effect transistor. Adv. Mater. 23, 5086-5090.
  10. Shen, Y. R., 1996. A few selected applications of surface nonlinear optical spectroscopy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 12104.
  11. Stallinga, P., Gomes, H., 2006. Modeling electrical characteristics of thin-film field-effect transistors I: trap-free materials. Synth. Met. 156, 1305-1315.
  12. Sze, S. M., Kwok, K. Ng., 2007. Physics of Semiconductor Devices, Wiley, New Jersey.
Download


Paper Citation


in Harvard Style

Gomes D., Motti S. and Miranda P. (2016). Using Sum-Frequency Generation (SFG) to Probe Electric-Fields within Organic Field-Effect Transistors . In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology - Volume 1: PHOTOPTICS, ISBN 978-989-758-174-8, pages 192-196. DOI: 10.5220/0005812801920196


in Bibtex Style

@conference{photoptics16,
author={Douglas J. C. Gomes and Silvia G. Motti and Paulo B. Miranda},
title={Using Sum-Frequency Generation (SFG) to Probe Electric-Fields within Organic Field-Effect Transistors},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology - Volume 1: PHOTOPTICS,},
year={2016},
pages={192-196},
publisher={SciTePress},
organization={INSTICC},
doi={10.5220/0005812801920196},
isbn={978-989-758-174-8},
}


in EndNote Style

TY - CONF
JO - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology - Volume 1: PHOTOPTICS,
TI - Using Sum-Frequency Generation (SFG) to Probe Electric-Fields within Organic Field-Effect Transistors
SN - 978-989-758-174-8
AU - Gomes D.
AU - Motti S.
AU - Miranda P.
PY - 2016
SP - 192
EP - 196
DO - 10.5220/0005812801920196