An Empirical Study on the Perception of Metamodel Quality

Georg Hinkel, Max Kramer, Erik Burger, Misha Strittmatter, Lucia Happe

Abstract

Despite the crucial importance of metamodeling for Model- Driven Engineering (MDE), there is still little discussion about the quality of metamodel design and its consequences in model-driven development processes. Presumably, the quality of metamodel design strongly affects the models and transformations that conform to these metamodels. However, so far surprisingly few work has been done to validate the characterization of metamodel quality. A proper characterization is essential to automate quality improvements for metamodels such as metamodel refactorings. In this paper, we present an empirical study to sharpen the understanding of the perception of metamodel quality. In the study, 24 participants created metamodels of two different domains and evaluated the metamodels in a peer review process according to an evaluation sheet. The results show that the perceived quality was mainly driven by the metamodels completeness, correctness and modularity while other quality attributes could be neglected.

References

  1. Bertoa, M. F. and Vallecillo, A. (2010). Quality attributes for software metamodels. In Proceedings of the 13th TOOLS Workshop on Quantitative Approaches in Object-Oriented Software Engineering (QAOOSE 2010).
  2. Bures?, T., Hnetynka, P., and Plás?il, F. (2006). Sofa 2.0: Balancing advanced features in a hierarchical component model. In Proceedings of the fourth International Conference on Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications, pages 40-48. IEEE.
  3. Czarnecki, K. and Eisenecker, U. W. (2000). Generative Programming. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA.
  4. Di Rocco, J., Di Ruscio, D., Iovino, L., and Pierantonio, A. (2014). Mining metrics for understanding metamodel characteristics. In Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Modeling in Software Engineering, MiSE 2014, pages 55-60, New York, NY, USA. ACM.
  5. Fouquet, F. and Daubert, E. (2012). Kevoree project. http://www.kevoree.org/. [Online; accessed 10- October-2013].
  6. García-Magari n˜o, I., Gómez-Sanz, J., and FuentesFernández, R. (2009). An evaluation framework for mas modeling languages based on metamodel metrics. Agent-Oriented Software Engineering IX, pages 101- 115.
  7. Gómez, J. J. C., Baudry, B., and Sahraoui, H. (2012). Searching the boundaries of a modeling space to test metamodels. Software Testing, Verification, and Validation, 2008 International Conference on, 0:131-140.
  8. Hinkel, G., Groenda, H., Vannucci, L., Denninger, O., Cauli, N., and Ulbrich, S. (2015). A Domain-Specific Language (DSL) for Integrating Neuronal Networks in Robot Control. In 2015 Joint MORSE/VAO Workshop on Model-Driven Robot Software Engineering and View-based Software-Engineering.
  9. Lehman, M., Ramil, J., Wernick, P., Perry, D., and Turski, W. (1997). Metrics and laws of software evolution-the nineties view. In Software Metrics Symposium, 1997. Proceedings., Fourth International, pages 20-32.
  10. Lehman, M. M. (1974). Programs, cities, students: Limits to growth? (Inaugural lecture - Imperial College of Science and Technology ; 1974). Imperial College of Science and Technology, University of London.
  11. Leitner, A., Weiß, R., and Kreiner, C. (2012). Analyzing the complexity of domain model representations. In Proceedings of the 19th International Conference and Workshops on Engineering of Computer Based Systems (ECBS), pages 242-248.
  12. López-Fernández, J. J., Guerra, E., and de Lara, J. (2014). Assessing the quality of meta-models. In Proceedings of the 11th Workshop on Model Driven Engineering, Verification and Validation (MoDeVVa), page 3.
  13. Mendling, J. and Neumann, G. (2007). Error metrics for business process models. In Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering, pages 53-56.
  14. Mendling, J., Neumann, G., and van der Aalst, W. (2007a). On the correlation between process model metrics and errors. In Tutorials, posters, panels and industrial contributions at the 26th international conference on Conceptual modeling-Volume 83, pages 173- 178. Australian Computer Society, Inc.
  15. Mendling, J., Neumann, G., and Van Der Aalst, W. (2007b). Understanding the occurrence of errors in process models based on metrics. In On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems 2007: CoopIS, DOA, ODBASE, GADA, and IS, pages 113-130. Springer.
  16. Sánchez-González, L., García, F., Mendling, J., Ruiz, F., and Piattini, M. (2010). Prediction of business process model quality based on structural metrics. In Conceptual Modeling-ER 2010, pages 458-463. Springer.
  17. The Object Management Group (2011). Business process model and notation 2.0. http://www.bpmn.org/.
  18. Vanderfeesten, I., Cardoso, J., Mendling, J., Reijers, H. A., and van der Aalst, W. (2007). Quality metrics for business process models. BPM and Workflow handbook , 144.
  19. Vanderfeesten, I., Reijers, H. A., Mendling, J., van der Aalst, W. M., and Cardoso, J. (2008). On a quest for good process models: the cross-connectivity metric. In Advanced Information Systems Engineering, pages 480-494. Springer.
  20. Vépa, E., Bézivin, J., Brunelière, H., and Jouault, F. (2006). Measuring model repositories. In Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Model Size Metrics.
  21. Williams, J. R., Zolotas, A., Matragkas, N. D., Rose, L. M., Kolovos, D. S., Paige, R. F., and Polack, F. A. (2013). What do metamodels really look like? In Proceedings of the first international Workshop on Experiences and Empirical Studies in Software Modelling (EESSMod), pages 55-60.
Download


Paper Citation


in Harvard Style

Hinkel G., Kramer M., Burger E., Strittmatter M. and Happe L. (2016). An Empirical Study on the Perception of Metamodel Quality . In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development - Volume 1: MODELSWARD, ISBN 978-989-758-168-7, pages 145-152. DOI: 10.5220/0005632001450152


in Bibtex Style

@conference{modelsward16,
author={Georg Hinkel and Max Kramer and Erik Burger and Misha Strittmatter and Lucia Happe},
title={An Empirical Study on the Perception of Metamodel Quality},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development - Volume 1: MODELSWARD,},
year={2016},
pages={145-152},
publisher={SciTePress},
organization={INSTICC},
doi={10.5220/0005632001450152},
isbn={978-989-758-168-7},
}


in EndNote Style

TY - CONF
JO - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development - Volume 1: MODELSWARD,
TI - An Empirical Study on the Perception of Metamodel Quality
SN - 978-989-758-168-7
AU - Hinkel G.
AU - Kramer M.
AU - Burger E.
AU - Strittmatter M.
AU - Happe L.
PY - 2016
SP - 145
EP - 152
DO - 10.5220/0005632001450152